Data Types In C

 Data Types in C Programming

Data types in C is a data storage format that can contain a specific type or range of values.
The data types used in c programming is to be chosen appropriately as per the
requirement in the program.
  • A C language programmer has to tell the system before-hand, the type of numbers or characters he is using in his program.
  • A C programmer has to use appropriate data type as per his requirement in the program he is going to do.

There are three types of Data Type used in C
    • Primary Data Type
    • Derived Data Type
    • User Defined Data Type

    Data Types In C

    Primary Data Types:-

    Primary data types includes the fundamental data types in (namely integer (int), floating value (float),
    character(char) and void).

    Derived Data Types:-

    Data types that is derived from fundamental data types (primary data types) and don't create a new data type but instead they add some functionality to the basic data types.
    Examples:-  Array-- A finite collection of data of some types,    Pointer,   Structure,    Union.

    User Defined Data Types:-

    Data types assigned by the user that represents an exciting data types. Data types identifier (user defined) can later be used to declare variables.

    Examples:- type def int salary;
                       type def float average;
    Data types in c refer to an extensive system used for declaring variables or functions of different types. The type of a variable determines how much space it occupies in storage and how the bit pattern stored is interpreted.
    The types in C can be classified as follows −
    Types & Description
    Basic Types
    They are arithmetic types and are further classified into: (a) integer types and (b) floating-point types.
    Enumerated types
    They are again arithmetic types and they are used to define variables that can only assign certain discrete integer values throughout the program.
    The type void
    The type specifier void indicates that no value is available.
    Derived types
    They include (a) Pointer types, (b) Array types, (c) Structure types, (d) Union types and (e) Function types.
    The array types and structure types are referred collectively as the aggregate types. The type of a function specifies the type of the function's return value. We will see the basic types in the following section, where as other types will be covered in the upcoming chapters

    Integer Types

    The following table provides the details of standard integer types with their storage sizes and value ranges −

    Storage size
    Value range
    1 byte
    -128 to 127 or 0 to 255
    unsigned char
    1 byte
    0 to 255
    signed char
    1 byte
    -128 to 127
    2 or 4 bytes
    -32,768 to 32,767 or -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
    unsigned int
    2 or 4 bytes
    0 to 65,535 or 0 to 4,294,967,295
    2 bytes
    -32,768 to 32,767
    unsigned short
    2 bytes
    0 to 65,535
    8 bytes
    -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807
    unsigned long
    8 bytes
    0 to 18446744073709551615

    Floating-Point Types
    The following table provide the details of standard floating-point types with storage sizes and value ranges and their precision −
    Storage size
    Value range
    4 byte
    1.2E-38 to 3.4E+38
    6 decimal places
    8 byte
    2.3E-308 to 1.7E+308
    15 decimal places
    long double
    10 byte
    3.4E-4932 to 1.1E+4932
    19 decimal places

    The void Type

    The void type specifies that no value is available. It is used in three kinds of situations −
    Types & Description
    Function returns as void
    There are various functions in C which do not return any value or you can say they return void. A function with no return value has the return type as void. For example, void exit (int status);
    Function arguments as void
    There are various functions in C which do not accept any parameter. A function with no parameter can accept a void. For example, int rand(void);
    Pointers to void
    A pointer of type void * represents the address of an object, but not its type. For example, a memory allocation function void *malloc( size_t size ); returns a pointer to void which can be casted to any data type.

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