Introduction to C Programming | C Programming

Introduction to C Programming

±  C is a general-purpose high level language
±  Father of C – Dennis Ritchie
±  Originally developed for the UNIX operating system
±  Implemented on the Digital Equipment Corporation, PDP-11 computer in 1972
±  The UNIX operating system and all UNIX applications are written in the C language

 C has now become a widely used professional language for various reasons:
±   Easy to learn
±   Structured language
±   It produces efficient programs
±   It can handle low-level activities
±   It can be compiled on a variety of computers

Why we use C?

±  C was initially used for system development work, in particular the programs that make-up the operating system
±  C was adopted as a system development language because it produces code that runs nearly as fast as code written in assembly language.

±  Some examples of the use of C might be:

°   Operating Systems
°   Language Compilers 
°   Assemblers
°   Text Editors
°   Network Drivers
°   Data Bases
°   Language Interpreters
°   Utilities 

Function of C:-

±  C is a case sensitive programming language. It means in C printf and Printf will have different meanings.
±  C has a free-form line structure. End of each C statement must be marked with a semicolon.
±  White Spaces (i.e. tab space and space bar ) are ignored.
±  Multiple statements can be one the same line.
±  Statements can continue over multiple lines.

 C Tokens:-

±  C tokens are the basic buildings blocks in C language which are constructed together to write a C program.
±  Each and every smallest individual units in a C program are known as C tokens.

C tokens are of six types. They are,
°  Keywords                           (eg: int, while),
°  Identifiers                          (eg: total),
°  Constants                           (eg: 10, 20),
°  Strings                                (eg: “total”, “hello”),
°  Special symbols                (eg: (), {}),
°  Operators                          (eg: +, /,-,*)

 Example :

int main()
                int x, y, total;
                x = 10, y = 20;
                total = x + y;
                printf ("Total = %d \n", total);

Character Sets:-

±  The character set in C Language can be grouped into the following categories.
°  Letters
°  Digits
°  Special Characters
°  White Spaces
 ±  Letters

§  Upper Case A to Z
§  Lower Case a to z
±  Digits
§  0 to 9
±  White Space
§  Blank Space
§  Horizontal Tab
§  New Line

 Special Characters:-

Introduction to C programming Special Characters in C

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